Editora: IGI Global
Nº de páginas: 267
Nowadays, we can rarely find organizations which don’t include the digital component in the marketing plan. However, digital marketing is often reduced to the communicational perspective or the use of the Internet, which does not allow to monetize the fullness of digital interaction with potential or current customers, obtaining a relationship of 360°. Further, it’s almost impossible to find a sector of activity where digital marketing is not present. Some sectors are more dynamic, others are more reactive, due to some stability, or accommodation, but digital marketing is more enhanced and demanding. Demand in the tourism sector has been growing, simultaneously the offer has increased in quantity and quality. Therefore, marketing professionals have been using the digital component to leverage marketing efforts. Transportation, especially airline companies, and accommodation organizations are among the top users of digital marketing techniques in communicating with their clients. Further, these two areas have strong involvement in tourism industry. The massification of Internet access and the entry of smartphones in everyday life, provided a revolution in the way consumers interact with brands. The use of mobile devices can help tourist decision-making process and allows individuals to share information, in real time, which can influence potential customers These factors are an excellent opportunity for digital marketing, which has evolved as result of the emergence of new technologies, new techniques, new concerns, such as, for example, content management. This book aims to show how digital marketing can influence consumer relationship with organizations in the field of tourism, hospitality and civil aviation. So, it seeks to highlight the role of digital marketing at strategic, tactical and operational perspective. Also, along the book it can be found different tools and techniques applicable to the sectors under analysis. So, this book is useful for marketing academics and their students (undergraduate/ graduate programs), researchers, marketers specialized in digital marketing and managers who need to understand the potential of digital marketing in tourism, hospitality, and airline industries.
The ten chapters are organized according to the title, and each part, organized from general to specific, matching the three sectors developed in this book. Therefore, at first you will find information about tourism. The next chapters focus on hospitality. The last ones are about airline industries. As there are several techniques that digital marketing uses to promote business, the different chapters develop different aspects in order to enrich readers’ knowledge. Chapter 1, “The Digital Tourism Business: A Systematic Review of Essential Digital Marketing Strategies and Trends”, covers a gap in the literature research, which is to identify, according to specialized research in digital tourism marketing, the best techniques of digital marketing for tourism and links its actual development to business models based on the tourism sector promoted through the Internet. The systematic analysis of results for digital tourism techniques in 15 articles provide strategies based on search marketing, digital methodologies, social media, content marketing and digital trends. The results of this research study can be used by marketers to improve their digital marketing strategies within the digital tourism ecosystem. The buying process of tourist products is not linear, and demands both offline and online information gathering, which makes the process even more complex. On Chapter 2, “Traveler Decision Making in Online vs. Offline Buying Behavior: A Contrasting Perspective”, the authors analyze the consumer decision making process in online environment and delineate a seven propositions model, based on intention adoption and continuance framework which provided insights to help marketers understand, not only, the consumers’ online decision making process, but also the factors that could make them loyal in using online services in travel and tourism context. Social responsibility is not exclusive of companies and organizations, but it can also comprise tourism. On Chapter 3, “The role of Digital Marketing and Innovation in Social Tourism: A Tourism-for-All Case Study”, the case study concerns “tourism for all” and focuses on the way marketers reach not only the today’s consumer, but, most importantly, low-income groups. This is because digital technologies have enabled the creation of new social phenomena, which comprises the idea of accessible tourism or tourism for all. The case study presented discusses the online relationship between digital marketing and specific social tourism contexts. The authors also consider some implications for management, besides giving suggestions for future lines of research. The next chapter, “Digital Marketing Strategies for Accessible Tourism”, is also about companies and governments’ concern in providing accessible tourism. Three case studies are provided: “PANTOU – Promoting Accessible Tourism Around the World”, “My web my way – make the web easier to use” and “Catalunya – Accessible Tourism”. The authors emphasize the role of digital marketing in the development and consolidation of accessible tourism. Content has become the basis of digital marketing, including text, video or image.
Chapter 5, “Photographic Image, Credibility, and Consumption of Tourism in the Digital Era”, aims at bringing the communication field of tourism closer together. Therefore, photographic images and photography from different areas and authors are used. Hospitality and Tourism are seen as transdisciplinary branches that articulate the relationship between the mediatized society and the instantaneousness of the “digital world” in technological devices. This chapter also debates the selection of valuable tools to promote the tourist photographic image regarding marketing and communication, whether in terms of consumers or tourism professionals. In fact, no matter the source, photographs are an important medium of information, and new technologies favor it. Chapter 6, “Mobile Technology Acceptance Among Turkish Travelers”, debates the way smartphones have changed the relationship between customers and companies. This has brought new challenges in terms of technology development, such as Apps, which have highly improved digital marketing. This chapter shows a quantitative study based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), applied to Turkish travelers. One of the marketing strategies concerns the consumers’ acceptance and use of mobile technology. The study of all these circumstances implies the drawing up of some managerial improvements, which are portrayed on this chapter. Since cloud computing is making inroads in other industries, and the rapid growth and development in technology, cloud computing has become a dominant platform for small businesses, as well as major enterprises. Although without any surprises, the tourism industry which employs 1 in 12 people in the world and generates 5% of the global GDP, has also seen the possible benefits of going on the cloud. These emerging technologies improve business efficiency and innovation through cloudbased solutions, including productivity and collaboration tools, instant messaging and e-mail, video conferencing and distance training solutions, customer relationship management, enterprise resource planning, and development and application platform tools. Although, the influences of the perceptions, expectations and decisions, to predict the trends of the potential travelers, has evolved in general the tourism industry towards to Tourism 3.0, where the consumers can easily connect to travel websites and interact by sharing their experiences, sharing also a lot of relevant and valuable data. This provides sufficient reasons for the tourism industry players to adopt and adept themselves with the latest advancements in the information technology and the adoption of cloud computing is key in this regard as it provides easy access to a web platform that offers more productive, efficient and competitive services to promote tourism as a vehicle of sustainable development. Chapter 7, “Cloud Computing in Tourism” addresses these aspects. Chapter 8, “Management and Implications of Daily Deal Promotions in the Hospitality Industry: Toward Their Holistic Understanding”, debates the seasonal discounting practice, which was and is important in times of recession, together with the daily deal or flash sale websites phenomena. However, much is yet to be known about their implications in terms of hotel industry, namely concerning the hospitality inventory. That is the purpose of this chapter: to collect and organize the available data, namely, motivators for their use, profitability-related issues, marketing implications, operational issues, impacts upon branding. Strategic vision and mission statement are basic features of any strategic planning. Digital marketing aims at disseminating such details to develop a feeling of belonging among workers and also of proximity with the clients. Chapter 9, “Analysis of the Vision and Mission Statements in the Websites: A Research on Five-Star Hotels in Istanbul, Ankara, and Izmir”, considers the website-declared vision and mission statements of 149 five-star hotels in the largest cities of Turkey: Istanbul, Ankara and Izmir. The conclusion drawn was that hotels provided scarce information about product/market area in their mission statements. Moreover, it was determined that although hotels fully reflected their basic ideology in vision statements, almost half of them failed to place an emphasis on the future. Chapter 10, “Building the Friendly Airline Brand: New Digital Ways for Cabin Crew Hospitality”, expands the idea that hosting behavior enhances convivial and personalized services, thus providing guests with mental comfort, which has become a growing criterion for any new, experience-based economy firm. Scientific research concerning airline hospitality has focused on pre-flight, in-flight, post-flight tangible and intangible service quality in an integrative manner. Recent researches have proven that the airline industry has consistently invested in the intangible factors, such as the cabin crew hospitality, instead of favoring concrete factors, such as “transport”. This chapter aims at showing that hospitality settles a new and fresh perspective that digital marketing must be aware of in order to create widespread impact on customers’ experiences.